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Monday, December 24, 2018

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Explore Android Operating System: Architecture and Frameworks Side

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Android, many times we all have heard about this, but few only know that what is actually an Android is? now this time we are with each and every detail of Android. Android is actually an Open Standard Platform for mobile devices, was released from Open Handset Alliance.


What is Open Handset Alliance?

Open Handset Alliance (OHA), dedication of several companies which includes Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel, Texas Instruments, Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola and T-Mobile was revealed on 5th of November, 2007, with their main aim as to develop Open Standards Platforms for Mobile devices. (Wikipedia). As the formation of Open Handset Alliance takes place, along with that Open Handset Alliance also released their first Open Standard Platform for Mobile devices, named Android which was built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.

What is Android?

Android is essentially a mobile operating system, or a platform for mobiles that includes an operating system following with middleware, and key applications. Android was developed by Android Inc., which was later renowned by web giant Google, which was further renowned by Open Handset Alliance. Android provides various tools and APIs to the developer, for developing applications on the Android platform by managing the code in the Java language. The release of Android was officially announced under Open Handset Alliance, a syndicate of hardware, software, and telecoms dedicated to open standards for mobile services. Google reveals many Android codes under the Apache License.

Features
  • Android is adaptable to larger The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 1.0 specifications.
  • Android enables users or developers to reuse and replacement of components.
  • The Database Software SQLite for structured data storage.
  • Android supports GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and WiMAX.
  • Android supports the MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF audio, video and still images formats.
  • Android is based on the open-source WebKit application framework. The browser scores a 93/100 on the Acid3 Test.
  • Android is hardware dependent with Camera, GPS, compass etc.
  • Android includes  SMS, MMS for messaging including threaded text messaging.
  • Android also includes Integrated browser based on the open source.
  • Android includes a device emulator, various tools for debugging, memory and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE.
  • Android also supports Multi-touch feature which is now available on the latest HTC Hero.

What is Android Architecture?

 

Hardware running Android

The first Android supporting mobile was HTC Dream, brags out on  October 22nd, 2008.
And according to Google, there are around 14 models which were supporting Android worldwide successfully. Some users with some sort of hacking or by unlocking the device they are able to install Android on the handsets which are not coming with Android. Up till now, there are many Handsets available in the market with Android, such as HTC Hero, Nexus, Motorola Droid and many more.

Application Framework for Android

Android being an open development platform, it allows developers to use their hardware to the level an developer can, or to build his own innovative applications he needs. Developers are totally free from hardware side to work in the manner as he wants like running backgrounds services, adding notifications, reminders and many more applications which a developer needs.

Android gives developers full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. Application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user. Attractive views are allowed by the Android to build an application, including lists, grids, buttons and web browser also.  Sharing can be easily done by Content providers that enable applications to access data from other applications such as contacts etc.

All Alerts are displayed in the Status bar with the help of a Notification Manager.
The Lifecycle of an application is managed by the Activity Manager and provides common navigation.

Access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files are possible with the help of a Resource Manager.

Libraries

Android includes C/C++ libraries for various operations that are to be performed by the different components of the Android operating system. These Libraries are exposed to developers by the Android Application Framework. Some Libraries are as follows:
  • SGL- a 2D Graphics engine
  • LibWebCore- it is the modern web browser which enhances the power of both Android browser and embeddable web view.
  • 3D Libraries- an implementation based on OpenGL ES 1.0 APIs, and included highly optimized 3D software rasterizer
  • Freetype- rendering of Bitmap and vector font
  • SQLite- it is a database engine available for all applications
  • System C Libraries- a BSD-derived implementation, tuned for embedded Linux-based devices or models
  • Media Libraries-  depends on PacketVideo’s OpenCORE
  • Surface Manager- manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications

Android point in time

Android includes a set of core libraries that that avails maximum functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.

Each and every application of Android runs its individual process, with its individual instance of the Dalvik Virtual Machine, because of this device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik Virtual Machine executes files in the .dex format which helps in minimal memory footprint. The Dalvik Virtual Machine is register based, which executes classes compiled by the Java language compiler that is transformed into the .dex format by the included ”dx” tool.

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